Political Science, 1932

Morally pure vigilante superhero — ironically dressed as a masked fascist black bloc thug— ready to protect innocent ordinary people from difficult ideas with gang vandalism, sabotage, and violence.

The first to coin the term was Mussolini himself, who described his own secret police as an organisation which hunted down “anti-fascists”. Conventionally, the starting point of socialist and communist resistance to fascism in Europe is dated to the 1930s in the context of the establishment of the Third Reich in 1933 and the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 (in which Orwell fought). The fragments of German socialist and communists parties who resisted the Nazis — 15,000 or so — allied from within housing estates and were called “Antifaschistische Ausschüsse,” “Antifaschistische Kommittees,” or the now famous “Antifaschistische Aktion” (“Antifa”).